The Persians, applying their usual scorched-earth policy, further contributed to the area’s destruction. During his reign, the official language at the royal court was Azerbaijanian. Unlike Sāru Taqi, he was not killed but brought back into the fold following demotion and a period of forced exile. The Uzbeks staged incursions into Khorasan in 1578, and in the same year a new round of Safavid-Ottoman warfare erupted that would continue until 1590, causing severe economic disruption in Persia’s northwestern regions, already devastated by severe drought and famine. Shah ʿAbbās devised the internal policies that enabled the Safavid state to last for over two centuries—co-opting adversaries and balancing competing forces through accommodation and inclusion—to a new level of pragmatic effectiveness. Shah ʿAbbās similarly welcomed various trading nations from the West, most notably the British and Dutch East India Companies who made their appearance in Persia during his reign, intent on capturing a share of the country’s silk trade. In 1544, he underwent a definitive transformation. But during the short fifteen months of his reign he also ordered the killing of a great many princes from various Safavid branches, possibly in emulation of contemporary Ottoman practice. The Safavid society was a meritocracy, so that’s not really that surprising. Within a decade of the founding of the new regime, important changes with far-reaching consequences occurred in its makeup. Shaikh ʿAli Khan, however, was only marginally successful in his efforts because he lacked the shah’s consistent support, crucial in a system as personalized as that of Safavid Persia, in which shah tended to serve as a buffer between oppressive officials and his subjects. Thus, having concluded the Treaty of Sitva Torok with the Austrians in 1606, the Ottomans fought back, and in 1610 embarked on a campaign that once again briefly put them in control of Tabriz. He wholeheartedly adopted the use of gunpowder. Sufis bore the brunt of the renewed persecution instigated by Majlesi the Younger, but non-Muslims suffered as well. Shah Esmāʿil died in 1524, to be succeeded by his ten-year old son Ṭahmāsp, at a time when Persia had begun to recover from the misery and devastation that had accompanied the early Safavid conquests. There, he managed to turn the shah against Gorgin Khan. Mixing commercial with strategic concerns, Shah ʿAbbās opened Persia to the wider world in unprecedented ways. Once known as Persia, the area encompassing and surrounding modern day Iran has seen many empires rise and fall. In 1668, Ṣafi II had himself re-crowned as Shah Solaymān, as he considered his first coronation as inauspicious. pl. Main Idea: ◦In the first years of the 16thcentury, the Safavids founded a dynasty that conquered what is now IRAN. The collapse of the Safavids saw the rising influence of the aḵbāris, possibly as a result of the association of the oṣulis with the central state. Together they marched on Qazvin, forcing the shah to abdicate. At the same time he remained engaged in the north, reconquering Azerbaijan and chasing the Ottomans out of Naḵjavān, Erevan, Lorestān and part of Kurdistan. Henceforth, a treaty, signed in Qasr-e Shirin, was established, delineating a border between Iran and Turkey in 1639, which still stands in northwest Iran/southeast Turkey. It is not true, as is often claimed, that the government failed to respond to these conditions, and it is therefore not strictly correct to speak of unchecked decline. He was well known for his style of poetry called ghazel. Jonayd, as yet lacking the requisite worldly power and facing the enmity of the Āq Qoyunlu dynasty, forged an alliance with this most powerful dynasty of the time, and Ḥaydar consolidated the ties further by marrying a daughter of their powerful ruler, Uzun Ḥasan (r. 1457-78). An important consequence of the Ottoman occupation of Tabriz was the forced migration of hundreds of skilled metal workers to Istanbul. In 1721 they seized and pillaged Šamāḵi, the area’s capital and commercial center. In the meantime, the navy-less Safavids lost the island of Hormuz to the Portuguese in 1507. With Ḵalifa Solṭān, an official of Marʿaši descent who was married to the shah’s daughter, Shah ʿAbbās’ reign saw the first appointment of an official of clerical background as grand vizier. In 1601-03, ʿAbbās took advantage of instability in Hormuz to extend his control to the Persian Gulf littoral by defeating the local ruler of Lār and by occupying Bahrain. The first concerns the country’s physical environment and its effects. Shah Ṣafi died in 1642, aged thirty-one, and exhausted from excessive drinking. It became more identifiably Shi'a in its orientation around the year 1400. Another development with equally debilitating effects was the religious policy of Shah Solṭān-Ḥosayn’s administration.  In addition to that, the Safavids' power base included largely Turkic-speaking warrior tribes from Azarbaijan and Anatolia, who were collectively known as the Kizilbash, and were, at certain points in time, the de facto rulers of the empire. Yet the Safavid army eventually recovered after the shattering defeat, and in the ensuing years advanced into northern Mesopotamia, threatening Aleppo and keeping the Ottomans on high alert and, significantly, prompting them to dispose of the Mamluks in their quest for security and control over Syria. Shah Ṣafi, the first of the Safavid rulers to have spent his youth in the confines of the harem, came to the throne in an atmosphere of discord and rebellion, with provincial forces taking advantage of the death of the ruler to try and regain autonomy. Abbas I first fought the Uzbeks, recapturing Herat and Mashhad, in 1598. The Safavids descended from a long line of Sufi shaikhs who maintained their headquarters at Ardabil, in northwestern Iran. The struggle for power between the two states always concentrated on Kandahar, which in the course of two centuries switched hands twelve times. Restoring Persia as a major center of political power and cultural creativity, they also established one of the strongest and most enduring centers of Shi’ismwithin the Islamic world. The result was Ṭahmāsp’s inability to pay his troops during the last fourteen years of his reign as well as the total absence of known Safavid coinage for its last three years, the period 1573-76. 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